Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common infection in intensive care units. It is caused by prolonged hospitalization and results in high mortality rates. This retrospective clinical study, of 140 patients in a surgical intensive care unit, aimed to identify the bacterial agents responsible for VAP infection, and determine antibiotic resistance rates in VAP Antibiotic sensitivity was evaluated by culturing and testing tracheal aspirates from patients with clinical and radiological findings of VAP The bacteria isolated most frequently were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (30.0%), Acinetobacter baumannii (26.1%), and Enterobacter species (4.3%). A. baumannii was more prevalent than in previous years. The results of antibiotic sensitivity testing suggested sulbactam/cefoperazone as the most appropriate drug for treating these patients. We suggest, however, that when staphylococcal pneumonia is suspected, a glycopeptide (vancomycin or teicoplanin) or combined trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is used as first-line therapy until sensitivity results are obtained. In conclusion, development of antibiotic policies for individual hospitals can reduce high antibiotic resistance rates due to VAP.