The purpose of medical treatment in the caustic esophageal burns (CEB) is to decrease inflammatory reaction and to prevent stricture formation. Resveratrol has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic properties. The aim of this study is to investigate potential therapeutic effects of resveratrol in experimental CEB. We divided 42 male Wistar albino rats into five groups: a control group, caustic groups 4 and 28 (esophageal burns were created), and resveratrol groups 4 and 28 (esophageal burns were created and resveratrol was administered). We used 25% NaOH to form CEB following the method of Gehanno and Guedon as modified by Liu and Richardson. Animals were killed on the 4th and 28th days for biochemical and histopathological examinations. We found that the mean malondialdehyde and nitric oxide assays of the caustic groups were significantly higher than that of the resveratrol groups (P < 0.05). On the other hand, glutathione assay of the resveratrol groups was significantly higher than that of the caustic groups (P < 0.05). Histologically, edema, inflammation and necrosis were found to be significantly lower in the resveratrol 4 group compared with the caustic 4 group (P < 0.05). Submucosal and muscular collagen accumulation were found significantly lower in the resveratrol 28 group compared with the caustic 28 group (P < 0.05). We conclude that resveratrol decreased both the inflammatory reaction and the stricture formation in experimental CEB.