World neurosurgery, cilt.79, ss.25-31, 2013 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi)
The transition from the medieval universities to the secular, second generation universities in Turkey occurred in the period from 1773 to 1945. The Ottoman Empire's efforts to establish a higher education system in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries only aimed at modernization of the armed forces, and the civil effects on the general society were only secondary. After the Turkish Republic was founded in 1923, complete modernization of all institutions of society, including political, social, educational, economic, and law reforms, were initiated by the President Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. His establishment of the modern Istanbul University in Turkey was an experiment unforeseen in the history of education. Step by step, he created a new language, a new alphabet, achieved unified and secular education under government supervision, formed primary and secondary education to support higher education, took expert opinion on forming the new university, and finally established the modern university. German-speaking academicians have played a very important role during the creation of the modern secular university in Turkey. This is a short analysis of this period.