Perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate are competitive inhibitors of the sodium iodide symporter of the thyroid membrane. These inhibitors can decrease iodine uptake by the symporter into the thyroid gland and may disrupt thyroid function. This study assesses iodine status and exposure to iodide uptake inhibitors of non-pregnant and non-lactating adult women living in three different cities in Turkey (Istanbul, Isparta and Kayseri). We measured iodine and iodide uptake inhibitors in 24-hr urines collected from study participants (N = 255). All three study populations were mildly iodine deficient, with median urinary iodine (UI) levels of 77.5 mu g/L in Istanbul, 58.8 mu g/L in Isparta, and 69.8 mu g/L in Kayseri. Perchlorate doses were higher in the study population (median 0.13 mu g/kg/day), compared with a reference population (median 0.059 mu g/kg/day), but lower than the U. S. EPA reference dose (0.7 mu g/kg/day). Urinary thiocyanate levels increased with increasing exposure to tobacco smoke, with non-smokers (268 mu g/L) significantly lower than light smokers (1110 mu g/L), who were significantly lower than heavy smokers (2410 mu g/L). This pilot study provides novel data indicating that study participants were moderately iodine deficient and had higher intakes of the iodide uptake inhibitor perchlorate compared with a reference population. Further investigation is needed to characterize the thyroid impact resulting from iodine deficiency coupled with exposure to iodide uptake inhibitors such as perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrate.