The aim of this research was to determine the level of burden and self-efficacy among family caregivers of elderly people in Turkey. This study is descriptive and cross-sectional. A total of 658 family caregivers of elderly people were included in the study. The data were collected with a caregiver's characteristics form, elderly people's characteristics form, the Zarit Burden Interview, the self-efficacy scale, and the Barthell Index. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 program. What are care burden and self-efficacy levels of the caregivers? Is there a relationship between care burden and self-efficacy levels of the caregivers with variables such as age, duration of care, sex, status of education, type of relationship, and status of employment that belong to the caregiver? Is there a relationship between care burden and self-efficacy levels of the caregivers with variables such as age and Bartell Index that belong to the elderly? The caregiver burden score was 38.65 +/- 13.73, which indicates a moderate level of burden. The self-efficacy score was 29.31 +/- 6.09, which is in the low range of self-efficacy. There were statistically significant differences between the caregiver burden score and the sex of caregivers, status of education, type of relationship, and the elderly person's score on the Bartell Index (P<.05). The relationship between the employment status of caregivers (P=.01), the age of the elderly (P=.01), and the caregivers' score on the self-efficacy scale (P<.05) was found to be statistically significant. Study revealed that the majority of the caregivers experienced moderate levels of care burden and low levels of self-efficacy. These results will provide beneficial information for nurses to provide the holistic nursing care.