The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of two commercial mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cements (ProRoot MTA and MTA Angelus) on transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 levels produced by cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). Human gingival tissues were obtained from individuals with healthy periodontium. HGFs were grown at 37 degrees C in humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin, and streptomycin. After 24 and 72 hours of exposure to the MTA products, HGF viability was determined by using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. TGF-beta 1 and BMP-2 levels in cell-free culture media were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell viability of the test groups was significantly lower than that of control at 24 and 72 hours (p < 0.05) but showed an increase at 72 hours (p < 0.05). Both test groups showed increased TGF beta-1 levels at 72 hours (p < 0.05), whereas the MTA Angelus group displayed higher TGF beta-1 levels than control and ProRoot MTA groups at 24 and 72 hours (p < 0.05). At 24 hours, BMP-2 levels of the ProRoot group were significantly higher than that of MTA Angelus (p < 0.05). Both test materials increased the BMP-2 levels within time (p < 0.05) and displayed similar levels at 72 hours (p > 0.05). These results suggest that both MTA products are capable of stimulating HGF to produce BMP-2, whereas the stimulatory effect for TGF beta-1 is material dependent.