We attempted to determine Bcl-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, and the relationships between them, in endometrioid adenocarcinomas and precursor lesions. Expression of Bcl-2, iNOS, p53 and PCNA were investigated immunohistochemically in 91 samples from benign (proliferative (pEM), secretory (sEM), disordered proliferative (dEM), inactive/atrophic (aEM), hyperplastic endometrium) and malignant endometrial tissue. Staining scores for Bcl-2 in the dEM, endometrial hyperplasia (EMH) and endometrioid cancer (ECA) groups were higher than in the pEM group (P = 0.004; P = 0.036 and P = 0.020, respectively). A significant difference in proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining was found between simple and complex EMH samples (P = 0.000). An inverse relationship was found between iNOS and p53 in the hyperplasia group (r = -0.533, P = 0.019). While a significant difference was found in p53 staining in ECA between the pEM, dEM and EMH groups, no such difference was found in iNOS staining. In addition, there was no direct relationship between iNOS and p53 in the ECA group. It was concluded that the interaction between iNOS, p53 and Bcl-2 in proliferative processes in the development of type 1 endometrioid adenocarcinomas is different from that in tumors originating in other organs.