In nature, interfacial molecular recognition and chirality are of fundamental significance for the construction of biological assemblies. Lipid monolayers at liquid interface can be used as biomimetic models for studying molecular interactions in such assemblies. In this article, we will focus on the use of Langmuir monolayers for studying self-organization and insertion properties of several neoglycolipids. Two types of glycolipids have been considered, one in the context of the analysis of glycoconjugates of biological relevance, and one dealing with the ability of some glycoprobes to insert into a monolayer in relation with their efficiency for serving as membrane imaging systems. (C) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.