Background: The role of second-line therapy in metastatic pancreatic cancer is not clear. In this study, we aimed to explore the second-line efficiency of capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX) in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer who have received gemcitabine-based first-line therapy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 47 patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer previously treated with gemcitabine-based first-line regimens. Treatment consisted of oxaliplatin 130 mg/m(2) and capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 twice daily with a 3 week interval, until unacceptable toxicity or disease progression. Results: Median number of cycles was 4 (range, 2-10). The overall disease control rate was 38.3%. The median overall survival and progression-free survival from the start of second-line therapy were 23 weeks (95% CI: 16.6-29.5 weeks) and 12 weeks (95% CI: 9.8-14.4 weeks), respectively. The most common grade 3-4 toxicities were nausea, vomiting and hematologic side effects. Conclusions: Our result suggests that the combination of capecitabine and oxaliplatin was tolerated with manageable toxicity and showed encouraging activity as second-line treatment of advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer patients with ECOG performance status 0-2.