The Journal of craniofacial surgery, vol.28, no.8, pp.2151-2154, 2017 (SCI-Expanded)
The aim of this study was to obtain information by assessing the relationship between temporal region fascial structures, fat pads, and temporal branches of facial nerve in human fetuses to use the knowledge on treatment of early childhood period surgeries. This anatomic dissection study was conducted on 40 hemifaces with no visible external abnormalities on their faces. Fascial layers and related fat pads of temporal region were dissected layer by layer beginning from superficial to deep. The relations of temporal branches of facial nerve and temporoparietal fascia and the structures of these fascial layers were evaluated. Temporoparietal fascia showed continuity below zygomatic arc with superficial musculoaponeurotic system. Temporal branches of facial nerve showed a multiple branching. Parotid-masseteric fascia became very thin on the superficial of zygomatic arch and ran with superficial layer of temporal fascia above without attaching to periosteum. Temporal branches of facial nerve entered between multilayered layers of temporoparietal fascia. Temporoparietal fascia became thicker on anterior and middle parts because of the localization of superficial temporal fat pad. Temporal fascia was a 2-layered thick and fibrous tissue enveloping intermediate fat pad. Deep layer connected to periosteum of zygomatic arch and superficial layer continued passing superficial of zygomatic arch and connected to the parotid-masseteric fascia. Deep temporal fat pad was found on the deep to deep layer of temporal fascia and surface of temporal muscle. The findings of this study may contribute to the knowledge of the topographical localization of temporal branches of facial nerve with temporal region fascial structures and fat pads in fetuses.