The current curative therapeutic option for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase is still allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). For the patients who are not candidates for allogeneic SCT, Imatinib is the treatment of choice. It was found that high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue prolongs the disease-free survival and may also restore sensitivity to interferon. Here we report the results of Imatinib treatment in three late-phase CML patients who were submitted to autologous SCT following resistance to interferon. Complete cytogenetic response and major molecular response were achieved in the three cases. Imatinib has the potential to induce late molecular remissions during the course of treatment and its effect may be optimized by a previous autologous SCT in this type of patients. (c) 2006 Published by Elsevier Ltd.