INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ORAL & MAXILLOFACIAL IMPLANTS, vol.30, no.5, pp.1119-1127, 2015 (SCI-Expanded)
Purpose: Diabetes mellitus is considered a relative contraindication for dental implant therapy, depending on levels of glycemic control. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the peri-implant conditions and measure the levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) in patients with glycemic-controlled type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients with well-controlled T2DM and seven systemically healthy patients were recruited for this study. Clinical measurements were recorded, and samples of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and PICF were collected from the sulci of both adjacent teeth and implants at baseline (after implant placement), 1 month, 4 months, and 7 months. Levels of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha in the GCF and PICF were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Standardized intraoral radiographs were taken at baseline (after implant placement), 4 months, and 7 months. Implant stability was assessed by resonance frequency analysis at baseline, at 1 month, and at 4 months. Results: Glycosylated hemoglobin levels in the T2DM group were significantly increased at 7 months compared to baseline levels. Implant stability quotient levels at 4 months were increased significantly compared to baseline in both groups. Alveolar bone levels around implants were statistically lower at 4 and 7 months compared to baseline and statistically decreased at 7 months compared to 4 months in the T2DM group. There were no significant differences between groups in bone levels around implants, and no significant differences were found in levels of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha at either teeth or implants or between the groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that dental implant therapy can be offered to patients with well-controlled T2DM, as there were no significant differences between control and diabetic patients in terms of clinical parameters or GCF and PICF cytokine levels.