The matrix metalloproteinase-1 enzyme (MMP-1, also called collagenase 1) plays a key role in turnover of collagen fibers in the intercellular matrix. Insertion of a guanine residue was found within the promoter region of the MMP-1 gene. We found that MMP-1 levels increased approximately twofold over normal when this insertion was present, enabling MMP-1 to facilitate tumor invasion and metastasis. MMP-1 is also believed to play a role in tumor development. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of polymorphisms in the promoter region of the MMP-1 gene on the development of benign and invasive hypophyseal adenomas.