Glycoengineering of Mammalian Expression Systems on a Cellular Level.


Heffner K. M. , Wang Q., Hizal D. , Can Ö., Betenbaugh M. J.

Advances in biochemical engineering/biotechnology, vol.175, pp.37-69, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 175
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/10_2017_57
  • Title of Journal : Advances in biochemical engineering/biotechnology
  • Page Numbers: pp.37-69
  • Keywords: Chinese hamster ovary, CHO, CRISPR/Cas9, Fucosylation, Glycoengineering, Glycomics, Glycoproteomics, Mammalian expression systems, N-linked glycosylation, O-linked glycosylation, Sialylation, TALEN, ZFN, HAMSTER OVARY CELLS, RECOMBINANT-HUMAN-ERYTHROPOIETIN, TISSUE-PLASMINOGEN-ACTIVATOR, N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID, HUMAN INTERFERON-GAMMA, CHO-CELLS, PROTEIN GLYCOSYLATION, ENHANCED SIALYLATION, GLYCOPROTEIN SIALYLATION, HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION

Abstract

Mammalian expression systems such as Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), mouse myeloma (NS0), and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells serve a critical role in the biotechnology industry as the production host of choice for recombinant protein therapeutics. Most of the recombinant biologics are glycoproteins that contain complex oligosaccharide or glycan attachments representing a principal component of product quality. Both N-glycans and O-glycans are present in these mammalian cells, but the engineering of N-linked glycosylation is of critical interest in industry and many efforts have been directed to improve this pathway. This is because altering the N-glycan composition can change the product quality of recombinant biotherapeutics in mammalian hosts. In addition, sialylation and fucosylation represent components of the glycosylation pathway that affect circulatory half-life and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, respectively. In this chapter, we first offer an overview of the glycosylation, sialylation, and fucosylation networks in mammalian cells, specifically CHO cells, which are extensively used in antibody production. Next, genetic engineering technologies used in CHO cells to modulate glycosylation pathways are described. We provide examples of their use in CHO cell engineering approaches to highlight these technologies further. Specifically, we describe efforts to overexpress glycosyltransferases and sialyltransfereases, and efforts to decrease sialidase cleavage and fucosylation. Finally, this chapter covers new strategies and future directions of CHO cell glycoengineering, such as the application of glycoproteomics, glycomics, and the integration of 'omics' approaches to identify, quantify, and characterize the glycosylated proteins in CHO cells.