Objective: To determine whether myomectomy during cesarean delivery is safe and feasible among pregnant women with leiomyomas. Methods: In a retrospective study, data were reviewed from pregnant women with uterine leiomyomas who delivered by cesarean at a center in Turkey between May 1, 2007, and April 30, 2014. Women were divided into two groups: cesarean myomectomy (CM) or cesarean only (CO). Data were analyzed for characteristics of the uterine leiomyomas, hematologic changes occurring between the preoperative and postoperative periods, duration of the operation, and length of hospital stay. Results: Overall, 76 women formed the CM group and 60 formed the CO group. The mean diameter of the leiomyomas did not differ between CM and CO groups (4.6 +/- 2.5 cm vs 5.2 +/- 2.2 cm; P = 0.175). More patients in the CM group than in the CO group had subserous (24 [31.6%] vs 7 [11.7%]; P = 0.006) and uterine corpus (57 [75.0%] vs 30 [50.0%]; P = 0.003) leiomyomas. Fewer patients in the CM group had intramural (44 [57.9%] vs 49 [81.7%]; P = 0.003) and fundal (15 [19.7%] vs 25 [41.7%]; P = 0.005) leiomyomas. Conclusion: Surgeons were more likely to remove corporal and subserous leiomyomas than other types; size did not seem to affect decision making. CM can be a safe operation for some patients. (C) 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.