Activated platelets have been identified in patients with sickle cell disease. However, the association of platelet P-selectin expression and automated red cell exchange procedures in these patients is not well known. We hypothesized that altered whole platelet P-selectin expression is associated with automated red cell exchange. Flow cytometric quantification of platelet P-selectin expression was carried out in 23 patients with sickle cell disease before and after automated red cell exchange. P-selectin expression was quantified as a binding index for platelet P-selectin (the percentage of positive platelets multiplied by the mean fluorescence of positive platelets). The patients were divided into two groups: individuals with painful vaso-occlusive crises (four women and five men; group 1) and those in a steady state (six women and eight men; group 2). The 33 exchange procedures were evaluated prospectively and used acid-citrate-dextrose A solution (whole blood to anticoagulant ratio = 14:1). Platelet P-selectin expression did not significantly change after automated red cell exchange. Clinical factors such as the volume of replacement fluid and the citrate infusion rate did not correlate with postapheresis platelet P-selectin expression. In addition, the association of platelet P-selectin expression and automated red cell exchange was independent of other laboratory factors (hematocrit level, hemoglobin S level, platelet count, and nitric oxide level). Finally, the difference between the study groups regarding platelet P-selectin expression before and after apheresis was insignificant. In conclusion, automated red cell exchange procedures do not induce platelet P-selectin expression in patients with sickle cell disease in the steady state or in vaso-occlusive crisis.