Oxamate targeting aggressive cancers with special emphasis to brain tumors.


Altinoz M. A. , Ozpinar A.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, vol.147, pp.112686, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 147
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.biopha.2022.112686
  • Title of Journal : Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
  • Page Numbers: pp.112686
  • Keywords: Oxamate, Warburg effect, Phenformin, Glioblastoma, Invasive pituitary adenoma, Medulloblastoma, SENSITIZES GLIOBLASTOMA CELLS, LACTATE-DEHYDROGENASE-C, HYDROPHILIC DRUGS, OXAMIC ACID, IN-VITRO, GLYCOLYSIS, GROWTH, INHIBITION, EXPRESSION, PHENFORMIN

Abstract

Cancer is one of the main causes of human mortality and brain tumors, including invasive pituitary adenomas, medulloblastomas and glioblastomas are common brain malignancies with poor prognosis. Therefore, the development of innovative management strategies for refractory cancers and brain tumors is important. In states of mitochondrial dysfunction - commonly encountered in malignant cells - cells mostly shift to anaerobic glycolysis by increasing the expression of LDHA (Lactate Dehydrogenase-A) gene. Oxamate, an isosteric form of pyruvate, blocks LDHA activity by competing with pyruvate. By blocking LDHA, it inhibits protumorigenic cascades and also induces ROS (reactive oxygen species)-induced mitochondrial apoptosis of cancer cells. In preclinical studies, oxamate blocked the growth of invasive pituitary adenomas, medulloblastomas and glioblastomas. Oxamate also increases temozolomide and radiotherapy sensitivity of glioblastomas. Oxamate is highly polar, which may preclude its clinical utilization due to low penetrance through cell membranes. However, this obstacle could be overcome with nanoliposomes. Moreover, different oxamate analogs were developed which inhibit LDHC4, an enzyme also involved in cancer progression and germ cell physiology. Lastly, phenformin, an antidiabetic agent, exerts anticancer effects via complex I inhibition in the mitochondria and leading the overproduction of ROS. Oxamate combination with phenformin reduces the lactic acidosis-causing side effect of phenformin while inducing synergistic anticancer efficacy. In sum, oxamate as a single agent and more efficiently with phenformin has high potential to slow the progression of aggressive cancers with special emphasis to brain tumors.