Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of robotic total/subtotal colectomy procedures with the Xi robot and to compare its short-term outcomes with those of conventional laparoscopy. Methods Between October 2010 and September 2018, consecutive patients with colonic neoplasia, inflammatory bowel disease, familial adenomatous polyposis or colonic inertia who underwent elective robotic or laparoscopic total/subtotal abdominal colectomy at two specialized centers in Turkey were included. Data on perioperative characteristics and 30-day outcomes were compared between the two approaches. Results There were a total of 82 patients: 26 and 56 patients in the robotic and laparoscopic group, respectively (54 men and 28 women, mean age 54.7 +/- 17.4 years). The groups were comparable regarding preoperative characteristics. All the robotic procedures were completed with a single positioning of the robot. Estimated blood loss (median, 150 vs 200 ml), conversions (0% vs 14.3%), and complications (0% vs 7.1%) were similar but operative time was significantly longer in the robotic group (median, 350 vs 230 min, p < 0.001). No difference was detected in the length of hospital stay (7.9 +/- 5.7 vs 9.5 +/- 6.0 days, p = 0.08), anastomotic leak (3.8% vs 8.3%), ileus (15.4% vs 19.6%), septic complications, reoperations (7.7% vs 12.5%), and readmissions (19.2% vs 12.5%). The number of harvested lymph nodes in the subgroup of cancer patients was significantly higher in the robotic group (median, 66 vs 50, p = 0.01). Conclusions In total/subtotal colectomy procedures, the robotic approach with the da Vinci Xi platform is feasible, safe, and associated with short-term outcomes similar to laparoscopy but longer operative times and a higher number of retrieved lymph nodes.