Previous studies have shown that sleep plays an important role in cognitive functions and sleep deprivation impairs learning and memory. Uridine is the main pyrimidine nucleoside found in human blood circulation and has beneficial effects on cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of uridine administration on learning and memory impairment in sleep-deprived rats. Flower pot method was used to induce REM sleep deprivation. Uridine-treated groups received 1 mmol/kg uridine and control groups received 1 ml/kg saline (0.9% NaCl) twice a day for four days and once a day on the 5th day intraperitoneally. Learning and memory performances were measured using Morris water maze (MWM) test. We also measured the ratios of total calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase II (tCaMKII)/beta-tubulin and phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (pCREB)/beta-tubulin, long-term potentiation (LTP) related molecules, using western blot analysis on the hippocampus. The results showed that REM sleep deprivation impaired learning and memory and also decreased the ratios of tCaMKII and pCREB. Uridine treatment enhanced learning and memory parameters in REM sleep-deprived rats. Additionally, decreases in tCaMKII and pCREB were prevented by uridine treatment. These data suggest that administration of uridine for five consecutive days prevents REM sleep deprivation-induced deficits in learning and memory associated with enhanced tCaMKII and pCREB ratios in the hippocampus. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.