Introduction: Peritoneal tuberculosis (TB) is uncommon in developed countries, although there is an increase in incidence due to the patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in immigrants from countries with tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to identify characteristic features of peritoneal tuberculosis (TB), which may be useful for the clinical differential diagnosis and management of this deceiving disease. Materials and Methods: For this retrospective study, 18 patients, who were diagnosed with peritoneal TB were identified after surgery. Results: Initial presentation consisted of ascites, pelvic masses, and elevated levels of CA-125. All patients were initially misdiagnosed as ovarian carcinoma. Tissue biopsies obtained from laparoscopy or laparotomy revealed accurate diagnosis of peritoneal TB. Conclusion: Peritoneal TB should be included in the differential diagnosis of ascites and pelvic masses and can be accurately diagnosed by laparoscopic biopsy.