The role of circulating, oxidized low-density lipoprotein and interleukin-6 levels in acute ischemic stroke considering the primary-vessel disease was investigated. The study consisted of 28 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 23 control subjects. Patients were subdivided into large-vessel (n = 12) and small-vessel (n = 16) disease stroke groups according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria. The means of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and interleukin-6 levels of patients with acute ischemic stroke were higher than controls (P < .01, P < .05). Mean oxidized low-density lipoprotein level was higher in the large-vessel disease group than in the small-vessel disease group (P < .01). The mean of inteleukin-6 levels was higher in the small-vessel disease group (P < .01). The results of the present study showed that oxidative stress promotes large-vessel disease rather than small-vessel disease stroke, and inflammation may play important an role in the development of small-vessel disease stroke.