Endocardial pacemaker implantation in neonates and infants

Ayabakan C. , Rosenthal E.

Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal, vol.6, no.2, pp.57-62, 2006 (Refereed Journals of Other Institutions) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Editorial Material
  • Volume: 6 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2006
  • Title of Journal : Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
  • Page Numbers: pp.57-62
  • Keywords: Endocardial pacing, Epicardial pacing, Lead extraction, Pacemaker


Transvenous pacemaker lead implantation is the preferred method of pacing in adult patients. Lead performance and longevity are superior and the implantation approach can be performed under local anaesthetic with a very low morbidity. In children, and especially in neonates and infants, the epicardial route was traditionally chosen until the advent of smaller generators and lead implantation techniques that allowed growth of the child without lead displacement. Endocardial implantation is not universally accepted, however, as there is an incidence of venous occlusion of the smaller veins of neonates and infants with concerns for loss of venous access in the future. Growing experience with lower profile leads, however, reveals that endocardial pacing too can be performed with low morbidity and good long-term results in neonates and infants.