Purpose: The aim of our study is to compare the efficacy of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting intraprostatic lesions in patients with clinically significant prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy; additionally, investigate the benefits of rostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET-MR software fusion images to the diagnosis.
Methods: Thirty patients, who underwent radical prostatectomy between June 2015 and April 2018, were included in the study. Subjects with gallium PSMA PET-CT and multiparametric prostate MRI performed according to Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System v2 criteria in our clinic were included in the study. 68Ga-PSMA PET-CT images were fused with MR sequences for analysis.
Results: The mean age of cases was 63.2 years (ranged from 45 to 79 years). Index lesions of 29 cases were detected by MRI and 22 of them by PET CT. Both modalities were found to be less sensitive for detection of bilaterality and multifocality (42.85% and 20% for MRI, 28.57% and 20% for PET CT, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between modalities. It was observed that if a clinically significant tumor focus was not detected by MRI, it was small (6 mm or less) in diameter or had a low Gleason score.
Conclusions: Software fusion PSMA PET-MRI increased the sensitivity of the index lesion identification compared with PSMA PET-CT and also increased the sensitivity of real lesion size identification compared with multiparametric prostate MRI.