Insanity, belonging and citizenship: mentally ill people who went to and/or returned from Europe in the Late Ottoman Era.

Artvinli F.

History of psychiatry, vol.27, no.3, pp.268-77, 2016 (Journal Indexed in SSCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 27 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/0957154x16642995
  • Title of Journal : History of psychiatry
  • Page Numbers: pp.268-77


The Ottoman Empire, which encompassed a vast territory, had several facilities for the protection and treatment of the mentally ill. By the late nineteenth century, some wealthy families had begun to send their patients to mental hospitals in Europe for better treatment. During the same period, the process of repatriation of mental patients who were Ottoman subjects also began. These processes, which resulted in complex bureaucratic measures, later found a place in regulations and laws. The Ottoman Empire had an additional incentive to protect mentally-ill patients during the Second Constitutional Era, when discussions about citizenship' reappeared. This article examines the practices of sending mentally-ill people to Europe and the repatriation of mentally-ill Ottoman subjects from European countries.