Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a worldwide health problem and defined by rapid loss of excretory function of the kidney with the accumulation of metabolic end products. For effective treatment and prevent complications the early diagnosis of AKI is crucial. The current analytes used to diagnose AKI are not adequately sensitive and specific and therefore clinicians need new biomarkers. One of the new promising biomarker candidates of renal injury is cofilin-1. Previously, in our laboratory we isolated cofilin-1 in kidney preservation solution prior to transplantation and attempted to measure serum cofilin-1 in renal transplanted patients. However, cofilin-1 was not accurately measured in serum samples due to the methodological issues. In this mini-review, we summarized the current knowledge and concepts both in the literature and our experiences with cofilin-1 as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and management of AKI.