Antibiotic Resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Turkey: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Ayas M., GÜROL Y.

MICROBIAL DRUG RESISTANCE, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1089/mdr.2022.0146
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University Affiliated: Yes


Turkey presents both a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and high prevalence of antibiotic resistance. In this study, we aimed to summarize recent data on H. pylori antibiotic resistance rates in this nation. After conducting searches in two national and international databases (ULAKBIM, EKUAL, and PubMed), a systematic review was conducted. A total of 197 original articles on antibiotic resistance of H. pylori in Turkey were collected. After screening for inclusion and exclusion criteria, to evaluate the H. pylori antibiotic resistance for the period 2005-2020, 20 eligible articles were included in the meta-analysis. Data analysis was performed using MedCalc 12.7.0. The number of isolated H. pylori strains in each study was weighted, and pooled proportion analysis was performed. This review included 20 Turkish studies, including 1,556 H. pylori strains. The overall resistance rates were as follows: clarithromycin (CLA), 26.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.5-33.5); metronidazole (MTZ), 28.4% (95% CI: 19.7-38.1); levofloxacin (LVX), 19.6% (95% CI: 9.9-31.7); tetracycline (TET), 0.7% (95% CI: 0.1-1.8); and amoxicillin (AMO), 1.3% (95% CI: 0.3-3.1). The reported results showed that Turkish H. pylori isolates are highly resistant to CLA, MTZ, and LVX, while exhibiting a low level of resistance toward AMO and TET.